Grape Pests
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Grape root borer female
Fig. 1
Grape root borer (female)
Vitacea polistiformis

Grapeleaf skeletonizer
Fig. 6
Adult grapeleaf skeletonizer Harrisina americana
(Guérin-Méneville)

Grape Leaffloder
Fig. 11
Grape Leaffolder
Desmia funeralis
(Hübner)

Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter
Fig. 15
Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter Homalodisca vitripennis Girault

Grape Flea Beetle (Altica chalybea) Illiger
Fig. 23
Grape Flea Beetle
Altica chalybea (Illiger)

Grape aphids
Fig. 25
Grapevine Aphids
Aphis illinoisensis (Shimer)

Grape Curculio
Fig. 26
Grape Curculio
Craponius inaequalis (Say)

Grape Aerial phylloxera
Fig. 28
Grape Aerial Phylloxera

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In general, grapes are susceptible to many insect pests. Some of the common insect pests attacking grapes in Florida include: grape root borer, glassy-winged sharpshooter, grape flea beetle, grapevine aphid, grape leaffolder, grape curculio, and grape phylloxera.



Grape Root Borer

Vitacea polistiformis (Harris)

The grape root borer (Fig. 1) is the most serious threat to grapes in Florida (Liburd and Seferina 2004). It is a member of the moth family Sesiidae. Adults are brown moths with thin yellow bands on the abdomen and resemble some paper wasps. The front wings are brown while hind wings are transparent. The eggs hatch on the soil surface and the larvae tunnel into the root system. Borer damage causes reduced vine growth, smaller leaves and reduced berry size. Because damage is restricted to below-ground, problems often go unnoticed until the vines start to die. Damage ranges from just a few feeding sites to complete root destruction. Grape root borer presence can be determined by detection of shed pupal skins at the base of the vines. 1
More... pdf 5 pages

Grape Root Borer larvaeGrape Root Borer Pupa(e)Larva(e) and galleries in grape rootstockGrape Root Borer Trap
Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Fig. 2. Grape root borer Pupa(e)
Fig. 3. Larva(e) and galleries in grape rootstock
Fig. 5. Grape root borer trap

Further Reading
Grape Root Borer from Extension.org pdf



Grape Leaf Skelletonizer (Fig. 6)
Harrisina americana (Guérin-Méneville)
 
This species is common throughout Florida, with the possible exception of the Keys, and it ranges widely in the eastern half of the United States. It is noticed primarily because of its defoliation of grapevines in home gardens. 1
Initial symptoms include the appearance of brown, necrotic, skeletonized leaf tissue, resulting from young larvae eating some but not all layers of the leaf. Later instars devour the leaf, leaving only a few large veins. Larvae attract attention by feeding in groups, usually side by side in a row. Grapeleaf skeletonizer is a minor pest in Florida. Vineyards receiving regular treatment for important grape pests are not troubled with skeletonizers. 3

Larvae of the grapeleaf skeletonizer, Harrisina americana (Guérin-Méneville), feeding on a grape leaf.Larvae of the grapeleaf skeletonizer, Harrisina americana (Guérin-Méneville), hatching from an egg cluster on a grape leaf.Underside of 'Lake Emerald' grape leaf, showing considerable damage by young larvae of the grapeleaf skeletonizer, Harrisina americana (Guérin-Méneville). (A) = remains of egg mass, (B) = young larvae.
Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9
Partial skeletonization of 'Lake Emerald' grape leaf by larvae of the grapeleaf skeletonizer
Fig. 10

Fig. 7.  Larvae of the grapeleaf skeletonizer, Harrisina americana (Guérin-Méneville), feeding on a grape leaf.
Fig. 8.  Larvae of the grapeleaf skeletonizer, Harrisina americana (Guérin-Méneville), hatching from an egg cluster on a grape leaf.
Fig. 9.  Underside of 'Lake Emerald' grape leaf, showing considerable damage by young larvae of the grapeleaf skeletonizer, Harrisina americana (Guérin-Méneville). (A) = remains of egg mass, (B) = young larvae.
Fig. 10.  Partial skeletonization of 'Lake Emerald' grape leaf by larvae of the grapeleaf skeletonizer

Further Reading
Grape Leaf Skeletonizer, Harrisina americana (Guerin-Meneville) from the University of Florida pdf



Grape Leffloder (Fig. 11)
Desmia funeralis (Hubner)

The grape leaffolder is a common and widely distributed species that is a minor pest of grapes in the United States. In Florida the grape leaffolder has done substantial damage to grape leaves in September and October when growers have discontinued their spray programs after harvest. Excessive defoliation may deplete the food reserves in the vine sufficiently to reduce the size of the next crop. 2
Injury to the leaves is very characteristic and may be easily recognized. As soon as a larva is large enough it folds the leaf, exposing the under surface; the edge is held in place by bands of silk thread. It is within the protection of this fold that the larva feeds, skeletonizing the leaf of the upper surface. 2

Grape Leaffolder LarvaeDamage to bunch grape foliage caused by the grape leaffolderDamage to muscadine grape leaf with characteristic roll caused by the grape leaffolder, Desmia funeralis (Hübner), also showing silk strands.
Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14

Fig. 12.  Damage to bunch grape foliage caused by the grape leaffolder
Fig. 13.  Damage to muscadine grape leaf with characteristic roll caused by the grape leaffolder, Desmia funeralis (Hübner), also showing silk strands.

Further Reading
Grape Leaffloder, Desmia funeralis from the University of Florida pdf 4 pages



Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter (Fig. 15)
Homalodisca vitripennis Girault

This leafhopper is native to the southeastern United States. The glassy-winged sharpshooter  feeds on grapevine stems as opposed to leaves. Females lay eggs in groups of 10-20 on the underside of leaves, just under the surface. The glassy-winged sharpshooter vectors the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, which causes Pierce's disease in grapes. Pierce's disease is considered the most serious threat to viticulture throughout the United States. It is the single most formidable obstacle to the growing of European-type (vinifera) grapes. Early symptoms of Pierce's disease include wilting, which is caused by bacterial growth that blocks the flow of xylem in affected plants (Brlansky et al. 1983). Subsequent damage includes discolored leaf margins, shrivelled fruit, leaf drop, and irregular maturation of new canes. 1

Neonate nymph (upper right) and egg mass (left center)Pierce's disease on grape leafAdult glassy-winged sharpshooters, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), feeding on holly.
Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 
Distribution of the glassy-winged sharpshooterGlassy-winged Sharpshooter and Pierce's Disease DistributionGonatocerus triguttatus (Gonatocerus triguttatus) this parasitic wasp lays its eggs in glassy-winged sharpshooter eggs embedded in leaves. two new wasps, g. tuberculifemur and g. metanotalis, have recently been found to attack this sharpshooter's egg
Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21
Egg mass of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), parasitized by Gonatocerus triguttatus Girault
Fig. 22

Fig. 16 . Neonate nymph (upper right) and egg mass (left center) of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar)
Fig. 18. Adult glassy-winged sharpshooters, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), feeding on holly.
Fig. 19. Distribution of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), in the southeast United States as of 2004
Fig. 20. Distribution of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), in California
Fig. 21. Gonatocerus triguttatus, a parasititoid wasp lays its eggs in glassy-winged sharpshooter eggs embedded in leaves. two new wasps, G. tuberculifemur and G. metanotalis, have recently been found to attack this sharpshooter's egg
Fig. 22. Egg mass of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), parasitized by G. triguttatus Girault

Further Reading
Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (=coagulata) (Germar) from the University of Florida pdf 5 pages
Xylella Fastidiosa Diseases and Their Leafhopper Vectors from the University of Florida pdf 6 pages



Grape Flea Beetle (Fig. 23)
Altica chalybea (Illiger)

Grape flea beetle is found in the eastern two-thirds of the United States. Like most members of the family Chrysomelidae, it feeds primarily on foliage. Adults are dark metallic greenish-blue jumping beetles about 4-5 mm (1/5 in) long. They feed on buds and unfolding leaves. The larvae are brownish and marked with black spots. Larvae feed on flower clusters and skeletonize leaves. Damage is often restricted to vineyard borders, particularly near wooded areas. Clearing uncultivated woodlands near the grapevines and removing weed species between the rows are preventative/control methods that can be used for grape flea beetle. 1

Frontal view of the grape flea beetle
Fig. 24



Grapevine Aphid (Fig. 25)
Aphis illinoisensis (Shimer)

Aphids feed on the young shoots and leaves of grape plants, but more serious injury results from the infestation of the developing fruit clusters. Both the winged and the wingless morphs are found feeding on the succulent part of the plant. Very high population will retard the plant and may also cause the berries to drop. Dry weather contributes to the growth of aphid populations. The grapevine aphid is usually not important enough to necessitate specific treatments. 1



Grape Curculio (Fig. 26)
Craponius inaequalis (Say)

This curculio has been reported throughout eastern North America. An occasional pest of mature grape berries, the adult grape curculio is a foliage feeder, leaving a characteristic zigzag pattern on the undersurface of grape leaves (McGiffen and Neunzig 1985). It lays eggs in the berry, where larvae feed on the fruit as well as on the seeds. They are distinguished from the caterpillars of the berry moth, another grape berry feeder, by their lack of true legs. Proper orchard sanitation is usually adequate to prevent significant infestations. Pesticide applications are required whenever the insects or damage are present. 1

Lateral view of the Grape curculio
Fig. 26



Grape Phylloxera, vine louse (Fig. 28)
Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch)

Grape phylloxera is native to North America and occurs in many wild species of grapes in Florida as well as other areas of the southeastern United States. Bunch grapes (‘Blanc DuBois’, and ‘Conquistador’) varieties were observed to be more susceptible as compared to four muscadine varieties (‘Carlos bronze’, ‘Noble black’, ‘Triumph Bronze’, and ‘Alachua black’). The presence of grape phylloxera is easily recognized due to the characteristic galls that develop on the leaves. Leaf (aerial) phylloxera does little harm and does not necessarily take up residence in all Florida vineyards. These galls also occur on the roots but they are not readily apparent. Root galls are small knots (enlarged areas) on the roots, which interfere with the roots' ability to absorb water and mineral salts (Flaherty et al. 1992). An aphid-like insect is responsible for causing the symptoms of grape phylloxera. Many native American grapes are tolerant or resistant to root attack and are used as rootstocks for European grapes in other parts of the country. 1

Grapevine phylloxera, vine louseCross section of grapevine leaf gall caused by Viteus vitifoliaeGrapevine phylloxera, root gallsLife Cycle
Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32

Fig. 29. Adults, juveniles and eggs
Fig. 30. Cross section of grapevine leaf gall caused by Viteus vitifoliae
Fig. 31. Grapevine phylloxera, root galls
Fig. 32. Life cycle



Further Reading
Insect Pests of Grapes in Florida from the University of Florida pdf 5 pages
2016 Southeast Regional Bunch Grape Integrated Management Guide pdf 66 pages
2016 Southeast Regional Muscadine Grape Integrated Management Guide pdf 35 pages

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Bibliography

1 Liburd, Oscar, Nyoike, Teresia and Weihman, Scott. "Insects Pest of Grapes in Florida". edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is Fact Sheet ENY-713, a series of the Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Publication Sept. 2004. Revised June 2013. Web. 17 Nov. 2014.
2 Mead, F.W. and Webb, Susan E. "Grape Leaffolder, Desmia funeralis (Hubner) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Crambidae)." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is EENY-192, one of a series of the Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Publication date Feb. 2001. Revised Aug. 2014. Web. 27 Nov. 2014.
3 Mead, F.W. and Webb, Susan E. "Grapeleaf Skeletonizer, Harrisina americana (Guerin-Meneville) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae)." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is EENY-191 (IN348) (originally published as DPI Entomology Circular 92), one of a series of Featured Creatures from the Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Published Feb. 2001. Reviewed Apr. 2014. Web. 27 Nov. 2014.

Photographs

Fig. 1,3,4 Solomon, James. Grape root borer. 1999. USDA Forest Service. bugwood.org. Under (CC BY 3.0 US). Web. 17 Nov. 2014.
Fig. 2 Grape root borer. 2002. Clemson University. USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series. bugwood.org. Under (CC BY 3.0 US). Web. 17 Nov. 2014.
Fig. 5 Weihman, Scott. Grape root borer trap. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 17 Nov. 2014.
Fig. 6 Dreiling, Mark. Grape Leaf Skeletonizer (Harrisina americana) (Guerin-Meneviille). N.d. bugwood.org. Under (CC BY 3.0 US). Web. 17 Nov. 2014.
Fig. 7,8 Adlerz, Warren. Larvae of the grapeleaf skeletonizer, Harrisina americana (Guérin-Méneville), feeding on a grape leaf. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 27 Nov. 2014.
Fig. 9 Underside of 'Lake Emerald' grape leaf, showing considerable damage by young larvae of the grapeleaf skeletonizer. N.d. Division of Plant Industry. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 27 Nov. 2014.
Fig. 10 Partial skeletonization of 'Lake Emerald' grape leaf by larvae of the grapeleaf skeletonizer. N.d. Division of Plant Industry. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 27 Nov. 2014.
Fig. 11 Dreiling, Mark. Grape Leaffolder (Desmia funeralis) Adult. 2012. bugwood.org. Under (CC BY 3.0 US). Web. 27 Nov. 2014.
Fig. 12 Grape Leaffolder larvae. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 27 Nov. 2014.
Fig. 13 Adlerz, Warren. Damage to bunch grape foliage caused by the grape leaffolder. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu.. Web. 27 Nov. 2014.
Fig. 14 Jensen, F.L. Damage to muscadine grape leaf with characteristic roll caused by the grape leaffolder, Desmia funeralis (Hübner), also showing silk strands. N.d. Farm Advisor, California. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 27 Nov. 2014.
Fig. 15 Conklin, Tracy. Glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) (Germar, 1821). 2013. Pest and Diseases Image Library. bugwood.org. Under  (CC BY-NC 3.0 US). Web. 8 Aug. 2016.
Fig. 16 Neonate nymph (upper right) and egg mass (left center) of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar). N.d. University of Florida. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 8 Aug. 2016.
Fig. 17 Hopkins, Don. Pierce's disease on grape leaf. N.d. University of Florida, Apopka. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 27 Nov. 2014.
Fig. 18 Conklin, Tracy. Adult glassy-winged sharpshooters, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), feeding on holly. N.d. University of Florida.  edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 8 Aug. 2016.
Fig. 19 Distribution of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), in the southeast United States as of 2004. 2004. University of Florida.  edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 8 Aug. 2016.
Fig. 20 Distribution of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), in California. 2016. California department of Food and Agriculture. cdfa.ca.gov. Web. 6 Aug. 2016.
Fig. 21 Garcia III, Reyes. Gonatocerus triguttatus, a wasp parasititoid wasp lays its eggs in glassy-winged sharpshooter eggs embedded in leaves. USDA Agricultural Research Service. bugwood.org. Under  (CC BY-NC 3.0 US). Web. 6 Aug. 2016.
Fig. 22 Conklin, Tracy. Egg mass of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), parasitized by Gonatocerus triguttatus Girault. N.d. University of florida. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 6 Aug. 2016.
Fig. 23,24 Wright, Natasha. Grape Flea Beetle (Altica chalybea) Illiger, 1807, adult. 2007. Cook's Pest Control. bugwood.org. Under  (CC BY-NC 3.0 US). Web. 6 Aug. 2016.
Fig. 25 Weihman, Scott. Grapevine aphids. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 27 Nov. 2014.
Fig. 26,27 Wright, Natasha. Grape curculio. 2007. Cook's Pest Control. bugwood.org. Under  (CC BY-NC 3.0 US). Web. 10 Aug. 2016.
Fig. 28 Weihman, Scott. Grape aerial phylloxera. N.d. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 28 Nov. 2014.
Fig. 29 Grapevine phylloxera, vine louse. 2007. Central Science Laboratory, Harpenden Archive, British Crown. bugwood.org. Web. 28 Nov. 2014.
Fig. 30 Cross section of grapevine leaf gall caused by Viteus vitifoliae. Biologische Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft Archive, Biologische Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft. bugwood.org. Web. 28 Nov. 2014.
Fig. 31 Grapevine phylloxera, vine louse, root galls. 2004. Central Science Laboratory, Harpenden Archive, British Crown. bugwood.org. Web. 28 Nov. 2014.
Fig. 32 Life Cycle. N.d. oardc.ohio-state.edu. Web. 28 Nov. 2014.

Published 12 Apr. 2014 LR. Last Update 11 Aug. 2016 LR
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