Lychee and Longan Pests
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Soft scale, Philephedra tuberculosa Nakahara & Gill, 1985
Fig. 1
Soft scale, Philephedra tuberculosa Nakahara & Gill, 1985

Hemispherical scale, Saissetia coffeae (Walker) Fig. 2
Hemispherical scale, Saissetia coffeae (Walker)

Adult diaprepes root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (Linnaeus)
Fig. 5
Adult diaprepes root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (Linnaeus)

Citrus root weevil, Pachnaeus litus (Germar, 1824)
Fig. 10 
Citrus root weevil, Pachnaeus litus (Germar, 1824)

Little leaf notcher, Artipus floridanus, adult
Fig. 13
Little leaf notcher, Artipus floridanus, adult

Adult Sri Lankan weevil, Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall, with yellowish coloration of head.
Fig. 15
Adult Sri Lankan weevil, Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall, with yellowish coloration of head.


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The principal pests on lychee and longan in Florida are scale (bark, plumose, banana-shaped, long brown, hemispherical, barnacle, Philephedra), root weevils, lychee webworm, and barkminer.
Several nematode species (reniform, Rotylenchulus reniformis; and sheath nematode, Hemicriconemoides mangiferae) cause decline of young lychee trees. 4
The fruit is not susceptible to the Caribbean Fruit fly as documented in an article by the USDA Agriculture Research Service: Florida Growers Like Lychees and Longans



Scales
Andaspis punicae, Thysanofiorinia nephelii, Morganella longispina, Coccus acutissimus, Coccus longulus, Saissetia coffeae, Ceroplastes cirripediformis, Philephedra tuberculosa

Scales are plant-feeding insects that are often managed by natural and released parasites, predators, and pathogens. In places where the natural balance of predation has been disrupted, scale populations may increase to levels requiring treatment. Most effective control is obtained when the scales are in nymphal stages, as egg and adult stages are recalcitrant to insecticide applications. 1
Symptoms of scale infestation include leaf chlorosis, leaf abscission, dieback of stems and limbs, and sooty mold on the surfaces of leaves and stems. 1

Philephedra scale (Fig. 1)
Philephedra tuberculosa

Philephedra tuberculosa scales attack stems, and heavy infestations may cause stem dieback. 4

Hemispherical scale (Fig. 2)
Saissetia coffeae (Walker)

Hemispherical scale, Saissetia coffeae (Walker) Hemispherical scale, Saissetia coffeae (Walker)
Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Further Reading
Philephedra Scale on Glaucous Cassia from the University of Florida Lee County Extension pdf
A guide to Scale Insect Identification from the University of Florida pdf 5 pages



Citrus Root Weevils
Diaprepes abbreviatus, Pachnaeus litus, Artipus floridanus

The larvae of these root weevil species impact tree health through direct root damage, which also provides entry routes for fungal infection in the root tissue. D. abbreviatus larvae are by far the largest and most damaging of these weevils.
Mature weevils cause only minimal damage from leaf feeding, which is apparent as notches on leaf margins . Most mature female root weevils place their eggs in clusters between two leaves on newly flushed foliage. After 10 - 20 days, eggs hatch, and larvae fall to the ground. The larvae begin feeding on the fibrous feeder roots.  1

With the exception of little leaf notchers that prefer a weed host, larval feeding injury to the roots by other root weevils, particularly Diaprepes root weevil, can have a devastating effect on citrus trees, since all larval stages feed on the roots for most of the year.  1

Diaprepes root weevil (Fig. 5)
Diaprepes abbreviatus (Linnaeus)

Female root weevils generally oviposit eggs in clusters between two leaves on newly flushed foliage. After ten or twenty days, eggs hatch and larvae fall to the ground. The larvae begin feeding on the fibrous feeder roots. Successively larger larval instars feed on larger roots. The final larval stages (of at least eleven) proceed to the tap root and major lateral roots of the tree. 2

Further Reading
Diaprepes root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (Linnaeus) from the University of Florida pdf 4 pages
Diaprepes Root Weevil from the University of California pdf 5 pages
The Diaprepes Root Weevil Task Force from the University of Florida ext. link

Egg mass of Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), on citrus leaf. Young (right) and older (left) larvae of the diaprepes root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (Linnaeus), on cakes of an artificial diet developed by the USDA-ARS. Diaprepes abbreviatus damage on leaves
Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8
Damage to citrus tree roots by Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.)
Fig. 9

Fig. 6. Egg mass of Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), on citrus leaf.
Fig. 7. Young (right) and older (left) larvae of the diaprepes root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (Linnaeus)
Fig. 8. Damage - notching on leaves - by Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.)
Fig. 9. Damage to citrus tree roots by Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.)

Citrus root weevil (Fig.10)
Pachnaeus litus (Germar, 1824)
 
Citrus root weevil, Pachnaeus litus (Germar, 1824) Citrus root weevil, Pachnaeus litus (Germar, 1824)
Fig. 11 Fig. 12

Further Reading
2016 Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide: Ch. 13 Citrus Root Weevils from the University of Florida pdf 4 pages

Little leaf notcher (Fig.13)
Artipus floridanus

Little leaf notcher has three generations per year. Although there is some overlap of generations, adults appear most abundant in a tree in April/May, July/August, and October/November. All adult weevils are attracted to the nonreflective silhouette of the citrus tree trunk. Little leaf notcher is flightless and must crawl up the trunk, while other species will fly to the canopy. 3
 
Little leaf notcher, Artipus floridanus, adult
Fig. 14

Adult Sri Lankan weevil
Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus

When adult weevils feed on leaves, they feed inward from the leaf margins (or edges), causing the typical leaf notching. There are some instances where the leaf material is almost completely defoliated, where the weevil has fed along the leaf veins. The adults prefer new plant growth. Intense feeding by numerous weevils may cause plant decline or stunting. Young seedlings may not survive a large amount of feeding damage. With healthy plants, however, the feeding damage may be considered cosmetic if the plant recovers. 6

Adult Sri Lankan weevil, Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall (left) comparison with the little leaf notcher, Artipus floridanus Horn (right).
Fig. 16

Fig. 16. Adult Sri Lankan weevil, Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall (left) comparison with the little leaf notcher, Artipus floridanus Horn (right).

Further Reading
Sri Lankan weevil Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall from the University of Florida pdf 4 pages



Lychee webworm
Crocidosema sp.

This moth is a recently discovered lepidopteran species and apparently an introduced species to Florida from the Caribbean. Reports from extension research in South Florida state that this moth is most active between six and nine in the evening, and oviposition occurs on newly emerging vegetative and reproductive buds. The life cycle of the moth is about 35 days, depending on temperature. Populations begin to build during November and peak during January and February.
No alternative host plants have been found, and it is hypothesized that the moth maintains a very low population in lychee and longan groves from April through October.  1

The current recommendation is to scout during November through February for signs of wilted or dead terminal shoots, webbing, and very small fruit bore holes. If 30 percent of the terminal shoots inspected show signs of the moth, insecticide applications are advised. 1



Corky Bark
Marmara sp.

Branches infested with this barkminer become covered with rough, brownish lesions, which range in size from 6 - 18 millimeters. The larval stage of the moth irritates the outer bark of stems, branches, and the trunk. This irritation results in cork-like lesions. However, no apparent economic damage from this larvae has been observed, and control is not recommended. 1



Further Reading
Crop Pest Management Profile on Lychee and Longan (archived) from the University of Florida pdf 7 pages
A Guide to Soil Insect Pest Identification from the University of Florida pdf 7 pages


Bibliography

1 Mossler, Mark. "Florida Crop/Pest Management Profile: Lychee and Longan." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is CIR1400, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Publication date Mar. 2002. Revised in June of 2009. Reviewed June 2012. (Archived). Web. 23 Mar. 2015.
2
 Weissling, T. J., Peña, J. E., Giblin-Davis, R. M. and Knapp, J. L. Jr. "Diaprepes Root Weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (Linnaeus) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae)". edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is EENY-024 (IN151), one of a series of Featured Creatures from the Entomology and Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Published: Feb. 1998. Revised: Nov. 2012. Reviewed Jan. 2016. Web. 12 Sept. 2016.
3
 Duncan, L.W., Rogers, M.E., McCoy, C.W., Futch, S.H. and Graham, J.H. "2016 Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide: Ch. 13 Citrus Root Weevils." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is ENY-611, one of a series of the Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Publication date Dec. 1995. Revised Sept. 2013 and Apr. 2016. Web. 12 Sept. 2016.
4 Crane,Jonathan H., Balerdi, Carlos F. and Maguire, Ian. "Lychee Growing in the Florida Home Landscape." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is Fact Sheet HS-6, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension. First printed Oct. 1968. Revisions Oct. 2008, Oct. 2013 and Nov. 2016. Web. 3 Mar. 2017.
5 Crane, Jonathan H. ,Balerdi, Carlos F. Sargent, Steven A. and Maguire, Ian. "Longan Growing in the Florida Landscape." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Fact Sheet HS-49, a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Publication Nov. 1978. Revised Apr. 1994, Nov. 2000, Sept. 2005, Oct. 2008, and Nov. 2016. Web. 8 Jan. 2017.
6 Neil, Anita. "Sri Lankan weevil Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall." edis.ifas.ufl.edu. This document is EENY579, one of a series of the Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date Nov. 2013. Web. 3 Mar. 2017.

Photographs

Fig. Soft scale, Philephedra tuberculosa Nakahara & Gill. 2006. United States National Collection of Scale Insects Photographs Archive, USDA Agricultural Research Service. bugwood.org. Under (CC BY-NC 3.0 US). Web. 23 Mar. 2015.
Fig. 2,3,4 Hemispherical scale, Saissetia coffeae (Walker). 2006. United States National Collection of Scale Insects Photographs Archive, USDA Agricultural Research Service. bugwood.org. Web. 23 Mar. 2015.
Fig. 5 Giblin-Davis, R. M. Adult diaprepes root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (Linnaeus). N.d. entnemdept.ufl.edu. Web. 23 Mar. 2015.
Fig. 6 Butler, Jerry F. Egg mass of Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), on citrus leaf. N.d. University of Florida. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 23 Mar. 2015.
Fig. 7 Grub, Peggy. Young (right) and older (left) larvae of the diaprepes root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (Linnaeus). N.d. USDA. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 23 Mar. 2015.
Fig. 8 Pena, Jorge. Damage - notching on leaves - by Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.). N.d. University of Florida. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 23 Mar. 2015.
Fig. 9 Pena, Jorge.  Damage to citrus tree roots by Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.). N.d. University of Florida. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 23 Mar. 2015.
Fig. 10,11 Wright, Nathasha. Citrus root weevil, Pachnaeus litus (Germar, 1824). 2007.  Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. bugwood.org. Under (CC BY 3.0 US). Web. 23 Mar. 2015.
Fig. 12 Payne, Jerry A. Citrus root weevil, Pachnaeus litus (Germar, 1824). 2003. USDA Agricultural Research Service. bugwood.org. Under (CC BY 3.0 US).  Web. 23 Mar. 2015.
Fig. 13,14 Wright, Nathasha. Citrus root weevil, Artipus floridanus (Horn, 1876). 2007. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. bugwood.org. Under (CC BY 3.0 US). Web. 26 Mar. 2015.
Skelley, Paul. Adult Sri Lankan weevil, Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall (left) comparison with the little leaf notcher, Artipus floridanus Horn (right). N.d. University of Florida. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web. 3 Mar. 2017.

Published 23 Mar. 2015 LR. Last update 3 Mar. 2017 LR
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