Input from Dr. I. S. Yadav, Gali Bahuji, Sadar Bazaar, Delhi, India
MANGO (Mangifera indica),
the king of fruits, is grown in India for over 4000 years. More
than 1,000 varieties exist today. It is grown in almost all the
states. India shares about 56% of total mango production in the
world. Its production has been increasing since independence in
1947, contributing 39.5% of the total fruit production of India.
Andhra Pradesh tops in total production, whereas Uttar Pradesh tops
area wise. Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka,
Maharashtra, West Bengal and Gujarat together contribute for about 82%
of the total production in India.
Climate and soil
can be grown on a wide variety of soils under varied climatic
conditions. It can be grown from alluvial to lateritic soils
except in black cotton soil having poor drainage. It grows well
in soils with slightly acidic pH. It does not perform well in
soils having pH beyond 7.5. Soils having good drainage are ideal
Mango is a tropical fruit, but it can be grown up to
1,100m above mean sea level. There should not be high humidity,
rain or frost during flowering. The temperature between 24 and
27`C is ideal for its cultivation. Higher temperature during
fruit development and maturity gives better quality fruits. The
areas experiencing frequent showers and high humidity are prone to many
pests and diseases. Thus it can be grown best in regions with a
rainfall between 25 cm and 250cm. Regions having bright sunny
days and moderate humidity during flowering are ideal for mango growing.
is the home of about 1,000 varieties. Most of them are the result
of open pollination arisen as chance seedlings. However, only a
few varieties are commercially cultivated throughout India (Table 1).
Table1. Commercial mango varieties grown in different Indian states
|Andhra Pradesh||Banganapalli, Suvarnarekha, Neelum and Totapuri|
|Bihar||Bombey Green, Chausa, Dashehari, Fazli, Gulabkhas, Kishen Bhog, Himsagar, Zardalu and Langra|
|Gujarat||Kesar, Alphonso, Rajapuri, Jamadar, Totapuri, Neelum, Dashehari and Langra|
|Haryana||Chausa, Dashehari, Langra and Fazli|
|Himachal Pradesh||Chausa, Dashehari and Langra|
|Karnataka||Alphonso, Totapuri, Banganapalli Pairi, Neelum and Mulgoa|
|Madhya Pradesh||Alphonso, Bombey Green, Dashehari, Fazli, Langra and Neelum|
|Maharashtra||Alphonso, Kesar and Pairi|
|Punjab||Chausa, Dashehari and Malda|
|Rajasthan||Bombey Green, Chausa, Dashehari and Langra|
|Tamil Nadu||Alphonso, Totapuri, Banganapalli and Neelum|
|Utter Pradesh||Bombey Green, Chausa, Dashehari and Langra|
|West Bengal||Fazli, Gulabkhas, Himasagar, Kishenbhog, Langra and Bombey Green|
Table 2. State-wise availability of mango in India
|Andhra Pradesh||March to mid-August|
|Bihar||May-end to mid-August|
|Gujarat||April to July|
|Haryana||June to August|
|Himachal Pradesh||Mid-June to mid-August|
|Karnataka||May to July|
|Madhya Pradesh||Mid April to July|
|Maharashtra||April to July|
|Rajasthan||May to July|
|Tamil Nadu||April to August|
|Uttar Pradesh||Mid may to August|
|West Bengal||May to August|
India, mango is available from March to mid-August (Table2). The
north Indian cultivars are alternate- bearer whereas south Indian ones
are generally regular bearer. About 20 varieties are grown
commercially. They are:
One of the most popular of India, it is mainly grown in Ratnagiri area
of Maharashtra and to a small extent parts of south Gujarat and
Karnataka. Its fruits are medium sized (250g), with attractive
blush towards the basal end. Pulp is firm, fibreless with
excellent orange color. It has good sugar: acid blend.
Keeping quality is good. It is susceptible to spongy tissue.
It is a widely cultivated, early maturing mango of south India.
It is the main commercial variety of Andhra Pradesh. Its fruits
are large sized, weighing on an average 350-400 g. The pulp is
fibreless, firm and yellow with sweet taste. Fruits have good
It is one of the earliest varieties of north India. Its fruits
are medium- sized, weighing about 250g each. Fruits have strong
and pleasant flavour. Pulp is soft and sweet.
Late- maturing variety of south India, it matures during July or
beginning of August. Fruits are large, weighing about 350g
each. Fruits are bright yellow with soft and sweet pulp. It
is shy bearing.
One of the most popular variety of north India, it is a mid-season
mango. Fruits are medium sized, with pleasant flavour, sweet,
firm and fibreless pulp. Stone is thin and keeping quality good.
This is indigenous to Bihar and West Bengal. Fazli is a late
maturing (August) mango. Fruits are large, with firm to soft
flesh. Flavour is pleasant and pulp and pulp is sweet and
fibreless. Keeping quality is good.
It is indigenous to Bihar. Regular and heavy bearer, it is mid
season mango. Fruits are small to medium- sized. It has rosy
flavour. Fruits are amber yellow with reddish blush towards the
base and on sides. Keeping quality is good.
Very popular in West Bengal, it is a regular-bearing mango. Its
fruits are medium-sized, having good quality. Flesh is firm,
yellow, and fibreless with pleasant flavour. Keeping quality is
Popular in Saurashtra region of Gujarat, Kesar is an irregular bearing
mango. Fruits are medium sized. Flesh is sweet and
fibreless. It has excellent sugar: acid blend. Fruits ripen
to attractive apricot yellow color with red blush. It has good
Indigenous to West Bengal, it is mid season mango. Fruits are
medium to large sized, good with a pleasant flavour. There are
traces of turpentine. Flesh is firm with fibres. Keeping
quality is good.
An important commercial mango variety of north India, it is biennial-
bearer and a mid season variety, with good quality fruits. Flesh
is firm, lemon yellow in color and scarcely fibrous. It has
characteristic turpentine flavour. Keeping quality is medium.
It is a mid-season variety, popular in Goa. Fruits are medium
sized with yellow skin. Flesh is firm, cadmium yellow and
fibreless. Keeping quality is good.
A heavy yielding, late season mango in south India, it has regular
bearing habit. Fruits are medium sized with good flavour.
Flesh is soft, yellow and fibreless. Keeping quality is good.
A native to coastal Maharashtra including Goa, it is an early-maturing,
heavy and regular bearer mango. Fruits are medium sized with good
quality. It has good flavour with sugar: acid blend. Flesh
is soft, primuline-yellow and fibreless. Keeping quality is poor.
Widely grown in south India, Totapuri is a regular and heavy bearing
mango. Fruits are medium to large with prominent sinus.
Fruit quality is medium. It has a typical flavour and flat
taste. Flesh is cadmium yellow and fibreless.
A number of selection/hybrids of mango have been evolved. These
include Clone C-51 from Dashehari selected at the ICAR Mango Research
Station , Lucknow, and an off season selection, Niranjan, selected at
Parbhani. New clonal selections from Langra and Sunderja have been made
at Varanasi and Rewa. A clonal selection, Paiyur 1, has been made
from Neelum, in addition to few dwarf polyembryonic selections made in
the north-eastern region.
As a result of systematic hybridization, several hybrids have been
released. However, only a few have become commercially
acceptable. Their parentage and important characteristics are
given in Table 3. Of these, Mallika, Ratna and Arka Puneet are
becoming quite popular.
is a highly heterozygous and cross pollinated crop. There are two
types of mango varieties. Most of the varieties in south are
polyembryonic and thus give true-to-type seedlings. In north,
there are monoembryonic and need to be propagated vegetatively.
Table3. Mango hybrids and their characters
|Hybrid||Place of research||Parentage||Importance characters|
|Mallika||IARI, New Delhi||Neelum x Dashehari||Regular bearers, high TSS, good color, uniform fruits, moderate keeping quality|
|Amrapali||IARI, New Delhi||Dashehare x Neelum||Dwarf, regular bearer, cluster. Bearing, small sized fruits, good keeping quality|
|Ratna||FRS, Vengurla||Neelum x Alphonso||Regular bearers, free from spongy tissue and fiber|
|Sindhu||FRS, Vengurla||Ratna x Alphonso||Regular- bearer, stone thin|
|Arka Puneet||IIHR, Banalore ||Alphonso x Banganapalli||Regular
bearer, attractive skin color, medium- sized, free from spongy
tissue. Good keeping quality, good sugar: acid blend |
is propagated on mango rootstock. For raising rootstock, the
seeds of mango are sown within 4-5 weeks after extraction otherwise
they lose their viability. For sowing the seeds, raised beds are
prepared with a mixture of farmyard manure, red soil and sand. In
some places, seeds are sown directly in polythene bags. After
germination, the leaves turn green in 2-4 weeks. These seedlings
are transplanted to polythene covers containing red soil, sand and
farmyard manure. Addition of nitrogenous fertilizer to polythene
covers after the establishment of plants helps in quick growth of
seedlings. The seedlings thus raised should be used for grafting
at different ages. Several methods of grafting are
practiced. They are:
It is one of the most widely practiced methods of grafting. One
can get a big sized plant material for planting with over 95% success
Veneer and side grafting:
These can be utilized for preparing a grafted plant material or for
in-situ grafting, i.e. for the rootstocks which are already planted.
This method is widely practiced in the Konkan region of
Maharashtra. The germinated seedlings of 8-15 days old are used
Different systems of planting like square, rectangular and hexagonal
are followed at different places. However, square and rectangular
systems are also popular. The spacing depends on the vigour of
the variety and the cropping system. The main field is brought to
fine tilth. Pits of 1mx 1m x1m size are dug. These are
exposed to sun for about 30days. Before planting, pits are filled
with well rotten farmyard manure. The top and sub soil are taken
out reparately while digging the pits. The grafts should be
planted during rainy season. In the in situ grafting, rootstocks
are planted in the main field. Then they are raised for six
months to one year. Then the scions of the variety that need to
be grown are taken and grafted. This is usually done when
humidity is high. After grafting the scions are covered with
High density planting
High density planting helps increase the yield / unit area. In
north India, mango Amrapali is found amenable for high density planting
with a spacing of 2.5 m x 2.5. Soil drenching with paclobutrazol
(2ml/ tree) induces flowering during off year. It has become a
commercial practice in Kokan region of Maharashtra. If coupled
with pruning, it helps increase production/ unit area in
Dashehari. The polyembryonic mango Vellaikolumban when used as
rootstock imparts dwarfing in Alphonso.
Training and pruning
Training is an important practice during the first few years after
planting. It is essential to space the branches properly and to
help in intercultural operations.
Manuring and fertilization
The nutritional requirement of mango varies with the region, soil type
and age. A dose of 73g N, 18 g P2 O5 and 68 g K2 O5/ year of age
from first to tenth year and thereafter a dose of 730gN, 180 g P2, O5
and 680g K2 O should be applied in two split doses during June-
July and October respectively.
Spraying of zinc sulphate (0.3%) during February, March and May is
recommended to correct the zinc deficiency. Spraying of Borax
(0.5 %) after fruit set twice at monthly intervals and 0.5% manganese
sulphate after blooming corrects boron and manganese deficiencies
Organic manures and phosphatic fertilizers should be applied
immediately after harvest, whereas ammonium sulphate should be given
mango, intercropping helps check weed growth and reduces nutrient
losses. Intercropping black gram—wheat—mango and
brinjal – onion-o mango gives better monetary
benefits. Besides, taking up cover crops like sun hemp, cowpea,
pea and berseem
help prevent soil erosion.
water requirements for mango have not been worked out so far. The
water requirements mainly depend up the age, soil type and
climate. However, young plants up to two year old should be
watered regularly. The newly planted grafts need about 30 liters
of water every week. Irrigating grown up trees after fruit set at
10 days interval increases their yield.
Harvesting and postharvest management
should be harvested wit pedicel. Injury to the fruits during
harvesting brings down their quality and also makes them prone to
fungal attack. Several types of harvesters have been
developed. These devices are simple and efficient in
harvesting. Yield in mango varies with the region. However,
on an average, mango yields eight tons/ha. Yield also varies with
the region. The productivity of mango is higher Andhra Pradesh and
Bihar. With the adoption of high density planting, its yields can
easily be increased. The north Indian mangoes Langra and
Dashehari are alternate bearers, whereas most of the south Indian
mangoes are regular bearers. Mango Mallika and Amrapali is also
comparatively regular bearer.
After harvesting, mangoes are graded according to their size. To
maintain the quality, proper packaging is a must. In western
region, bamboo baskets are used for packing. A basket contains
50-100 fruits. Straw is used for packing. Wooden boxes are
also used in some place. However, now perforated cardboard are
generally used. In these boxes either fruits are individually
wrapped with tissue paper before packing or paper shavings are used for
the postharvest losses is one of the most important
aspects. Usually green and mature mangoes are stored better than
ripe ones harvested from trees. Low temperature storage,
controlled atmospheric storage, use of chemical treatment for delaying
ripening, irradiation heat treatment, packaging and shrink wrapping are
methods to increase their shelf life. This temperature of 5°-
16°C for different varieties is ideal for storing. Mangoes are
highly susceptible to low temperature injury. Loss of flavour and
development of undesirable softening are major symptoms of chilling
Under controlled atmospheric storage, retardation of respiratory
activity, delaying of softening, color development and senescence of
fruits take place. Hence, this method has not been adopted in
mango. The combination of waxing (3%) along with hot water treatment
results in good quality fruits with extended storage
life. Individual wrapping of fruit imparts uniform color and
reduces shrinkage. Hydro-cooling at 12°-15°C and holding
for two weeks at 15°C followed by storage for one week at ambient
temperature gives good storage life to fruits.
bearing has been one of the major problems. Most of the south
Indian varieties are regular- bearer, whereas north Indian ones
alternate-bearer. Paclobutrazol is a promising chemical for flower
induction in mango. Soil drenching with Paclobutrazol (5 g and
10g/tree) results in minimum outbreak of September to October
vegetative flushes. It gives early and profuse flowering and
more annual yield without affecting fruit size and quality.
is one of the most important disorders, causing huge losses. It is
a major problem in Punjab, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh. However, it
has also been noticed in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and
Orrisa. Of the two types of mango malformation, vegetative
malformation is more common in nursery seedlings and young
plants. Floral malformation affects trees at the bearing
stage. In vegetative malformation or bunchy top, compact leaves
are formed in a bunch at the apex of shoot or in the leaf axil and
growth of shootlet is arrested. Floral malformation directly
affects the productivity. The incidence of disorder varies from
variety to variety. Deblossoming alone or coupled with a spray of
200 ppm NAA lowers the number of malformed panicles significantly.
disorder is mainly noticed in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West
Bengal. The distal end of the affected fruits turns black
and become hard. These fruits ripen prematurely and become
unmarketable. This disorder is caused by the smoke of brick-
kilns located within a distance of 600m. Gases like carbon
monoxide and carbondioxide, sulphate dioxide and acetylene cause these
symptoms. It can be controlled by raising the height of the
chimney of the brick kilns. Spraying borax (0.6 %) at 10-14 days
intervals starting from fruit set also controls it.
malady is characterized by a cluster of fruit lets at the tip of the
panicle giving an appearance of bunch tip called jhumka. These
fruit lets are dark green with a deeper curve in the sinus beak region
compared with normally developing fruit lets. These fruit lets
grow to marble size after which their growth ceases. One of the
main reasons for clustering is the adverse climate during February
– March, particularly the low temperature. Most of the fruits
are aborted with shriveled embryos and do not develop further,
signifying the role of normal embryo growth in the development of
is in Alphonso mango. Fruits look normal from outside. But inside,
a patch of flesh becomes spongy, yellowish and sour. This
disorder has brought down the export of this variety.
Inactivation of ripening enzyme due to high temperature, convective
heat and postharvest exposure to sunlight are the causes. Use of
sod culture and mulching are useful in reducing its
incidence. Mango hybrids Ratna and Arka Puneet which have Alphonso
like characters to not suffer from this malady. Harvesting mangoes
when they are three-fourth matured rather than fully matured ones also
reduces this malady.